8.E.2.1 – Infer the age of Earth and relative age of rocks and fossils from index fossils and ordering of rock layers (relative dating and radioactive dating).
8.E.2.2 – Explain the use of fossils, ice cores, composition of sedimentary rocks, faults, and igneous rock formations found in rock layers as evidence of the history of the Earth and its changing life forms.

8.L.4.1 – Summarize the use of evidence drawn from geology, fossils, and comparative anatomy to form the basis for biological classification systems and the theory of evolution.
8.L.4.2 – Explain the relationship between genetic variation and an organism’s ability to adapt to its environment.

8.P.2.1 – Explain the environmental consequences of the various methods of obtaining, transforming and distributing energy.
8.P.2.2 – Explain the implications of the depletion of renewable and nonrenewable energy resources and the importance of conservation.